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A new concept for advanced large-scale energy storage: secondary batteries with seawater as open self-replenishing cathode 

This project is funded by EPSRC (EP/N013727/1) and is a new approach in the field of sodium-ion batteries in which seawater is used as the source of sodium in a hybrid battery/fuel cell.

The project will optimise the materials and cell design so that the technology can be developed to reach the eventual target of medium/large-scale semi-submerged energy storage farms. These should provide long-duration storage and reliable frequent discharge for load-levelling, source-following and distribution deferral of today’s renewable power sources.